Country profile:

Poland offers an intriguing example of contemporary migrants. This is mainly due to the fact that the country, which for decades (or even centuries) was described as a typical emigration country, has rapidly changed its migration status to become a net immigration country. This change is related both to supply factors (the first war in Ukraine and relatively massive migration flows from that country) and to demand factors – very liberal migration policies in the labour market and growing demand for foreign labour. Moreover, these changes were significantly amplified in 2022 with massive displacement from Ukraine estimated at around 1 million people. Of particular importance in the context of the project is the fact that Poland can be treated as a New Immigrant Destination. This term not only refers to the recent shift from being a net sending to a net receiving area (as outlined above), but also refers to several specific characteristics, including poorly developed ethnic enclaves and lacking or poorly functioning integration infrastructures dedicated to migrants (including those targeting irregular migrants).

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